Environmental Modeling

Initial Conceptualizations GIS

In broad terms, GIS have provided environmental modelers with an ideal platform for spatial data integration, parameter estimation, and cartographic visualization, while environmental modeling has allowed GIS profession als to move beyond simple inventory and […]

Environmental Modeling

Cluster Detection

This ex post approach is structured quite differently from the previous ones. The initial phase is predominantly exploratory of spatial patterns either by statistical or geocomputational techniques and, once an abnormal concentration of some effect […]

Environmental Modeling

Coastal Oil Spill Modeling

Coastal oil spills are serious environmental disasters often leading to significant long-term impacts. From 1978 to 1995, there were in excess of 4,100 major oil spills of 10,000 gallons or more (Etkin and Welch, 1997). […]

GIS Engineering

Role of GIS in Data Integration

In 1991, digital maps of rural areas were not available. Typically, paper topographic maps are themselves prepared in layers with separate masters for contours, detail (roads, buildings, streams), symbols, and annotation (e.g., place names). Therefore, […]

GIS Engineering

Source–Pathway Characterization

The main difference between this approach and the previous one is that the transport mechanisms between sources and receptors or between inputs and outputs are explicitly modeled. This requires the relevant parameters to be quantified […]