GIS Engineering

Maturing Conceptualizations GIS

Despite the scientific separation between the way GIS and environmental simulation models are constructed and used, the continuing need to establish some level of integration beyond just being used together is driven by the growing […]

GIS Engineering

Role of GIS in Data Integration

In 1991, digital maps of rural areas were not available. Typically, paper topographic maps are themselves prepared in layers with separate masters for contours, detail (roads, buildings, streams), symbols, and annotation (e.g., place names). Therefore, […]

GIS Engineering

Source–Pathway Characterization

The main difference between this approach and the previous one is that the transport mechanisms between sources and receptors or between inputs and outputs are explicitly modeled. This requires the relevant parameters to be quantified […]